By: Kitty Werthmann
What I am about to tell you is something you’ve probably never heard or will ever
read in history books.
I believe that I am an eyewitness to history. I cannot tell you that
Hitler took Austria by tanks and guns; it would distort history. We elected
him by a landslide – 98% of the vote. I’ve never read that in any American publications.
Everyone thinks that Hitler just rolled in with his tanks and took
Austria by force. In 1938, Austria was in deep Depression. Nearly one-third
of our workforce was unemployed.
We had 25% inflation and 25% bank loan interest rates.
Farmers and business people were declaring bankruptcy daily. Young
people were going from house to house begging for food. Not that they didn’t
want to work; there simply weren’t any jobs. My mother was a Christian
woman and believed in helping people in need. Every day we cooked a big kettle
of soup and baked bread to feed those poor, hungry people – about 30 daily.
The Communist Party and the National Socialist Party were fighting
each other. Blocks and blocks of cities like Vienna , Linz , and Graz were
destroyed. The people became desperate and petitioned the government
to let them decide what kind of government they wanted.
We looked to our neighbor on the north, Germany, where Hitler had
been in power since 1933. We had been told that they didn’t have unemployment
or crime, and they had a high standard of living.
Nothing was ever said about persecution of any group — Jewish or otherwise.
We were led to believe that everyone was happy. We wanted the same way of life in Austria.
We were promised that a vote for Hitler would mean the end of unemployment and help for the family.
Hitler also said that businesses would be assisted, and farmers would get their farms back.
Ninety-eight percent of the population voted to annex Austria to
Germany and have Hitler for our ruler. We were overjoyed, and for three days
we danced in the streets and had candlelight parades.
The new government opened up big field kitchens and everyone was fed.
After the election, German officials were appointed, and like a
miracle, we suddenly had law and order. Three or four weeks later, everyone was
The government made sure that a lot of work was created through the Public Work Service.
Hitler decided we should have equal rights for women.
Before this, it was a custom that married Austrian women did not work outside the home.
An able-bodied husband would be looked down on if he couldn’t support his
family. Many women in the teaching profession were elated that they
could retain the jobs they previously had been required to give up for
Hitler Targets Education – Eliminates Religious Instruction for
Our education was nationalized. I attended a very good public school.
The population was predominantly Catholic, so we had religion in our
The day we elected Hitler (March 13, 1938), I walked into my
schoolroom to find the crucifix replaced by Hitler’s picture hanging next to a Nazi
flag. Our teacher, a very devout woman, stood up and told the class we
wouldn’t pray or have religion anymore. Instead, we sang “Deutschland,
Deutschland, Uber Alles,” and had physical education.
Sunday became National Youth Day with compulsory attendance. Parents
were not pleased about the sudden change in curriculum. They were told
that if they did not send us, they would receive a stiff letter of warning the
first time. The second time they would be fined the equivalent of
$300, and the third time they would be subject to jail. The first two hours
consisted of political indoctrination. The rest of the day we had sports. As
time went along, we loved it. Oh, we had so much fun and got our sports
equipment free. We would go home and gleefully tell our parents about
the wonderful time we had.
My mother was very unhappy. When the next term started, she took me
out of public school and put me in a convent. I told her she couldn’t do
that and she told me that someday when I grew up, I would be grateful. There
was a very good curriculum, but hardly any fun – no sports, and no political
indoctrination. I hated it at first but felt I could tolerate it.
Every once in a while, on holidays, I went home. I would go back to my old friends,
and ask what was going on and what they were doing. Their
loose lifestyle was very alarming to me. They lived without religion. By
that time unwed mothers were glorified for “having a baby for Hitler”.
It seemed strange to me that our society changed so suddenly.
As time went along, I realized what a great deed my mother did so that I
wasn’t exposed to that kind of humanistic philosophy.
“Equal Rights” Hits Home
In 1939, the war started and a food bank was established. All food was
rationed and could only be purchased using food stamps. At the same
time, a full-employment law was passed which meant if you didn’t work, you
didn’t get a ration card, and if you didn’t have a card, you starved to
death. Women who stayed home to raise their families didn’t have any
marketable skills and often had to take jobs more suited for men.
Soon after this, the draft was implemented. It was compulsory for
young people, male and female, to give one year to the labor corps.
During the day, the girls worked on the farms, and at night they returned
to their barracks for military training just like the boys.
They were trained to be anti-aircraft gunners and participated in the signal corps.
After the labor corps, they were not discharged but were used in the front lines.
When I go back to Austria to visit my family and friends,
most of these women are emotional cripples because they just
were not equipped to handle the horrors of combat.
Three months before I turned 18, I was in an air raid attack.
I nearly had a leg amputated, so I was spared having to go into
the labor corps and into military service.
Hitler Restructured the Family through Daycare
When the mothers had to go out into the work force, the government
immediately established child care centers. You could take your
children ages 4 weeks to school age and leave them there around-the-clock, 7
days a week, under the total care of the government. The state raised a whole
generation of children. There were no motherly women to take care of
the children, just people highly trained in child psychology. By this
time, no one talked about equal rights. We knew we’d been had.
Health-Care and Small Business Suffer Under Government Controls
Before Hitler, we had very good medical care. Many American doctors
trained at the University of Vienna. After Hitler, health care was
socialized, free for everyone. Doctors were salaried by the government. The problem
was, since it was free, the people were going to the doctors for
everything. When the good doctor arrived at his office at 8 a.m., 40 people were
already waiting and, at the same time, the hospitals were full. If you
needed elective surgery, you had to wait a year or two for your turn.
There was no money for research as it was poured into socialized medicine.
Research at the medical schools literally stopped, so the best
doctors left Austria and emigrated to other countries.
As for health-care, our tax rates went up to 80% of our income.
Newlyweds immediately received a $1,000 loan from the government to establish a household.
We had big programs for families. All day care and education were free.
High schools were taken over by the government and college
tuition was subsidized.
Everyone was entitled to free handouts, such as food stamps,
clothing, and housing. We had another agency designed to monitor business. My
brother-in-law owned a restaurant that had square tables. Government
officials told him he had to replace them with round tables because
people might bump themselves on the corners. Then they said he had to have
additional bathroom facilities. It was just a small dairy business
with a snack bar. He couldn’t meet all the demands. Soon, he went out of
business. If the government owned the large businesses and not many small ones
existed, it could be in control.
We had consumer protection. We were told how to shop and what to buy.
Free enterprise was essentially abolished. We had a planning agency
specially designed for farmers. The agents would go to the farms, count the
live-stock, then tell the farmers what to produce, and how to produce
“Mercy Killing” Redefined
In 1944, I was a student teacher in a small village in the Alps . The
villagers were surrounded by mountain passes which, in the winter,
were closed off with snow, causing people to be isolated. So people
inter-married and offspring were sometimes retarded. When I arrived, I was told
there were 15 mentally retarded adults, but they were all useful and did
good manual work. I knew one, named Vincent, very well. He was a janitor
of the school. One day I looked out the window and saw Vincent and others
getting into a van. I asked my superior where they were going. She said to an
institution where the State Health Department would teach them a
trade, and to read and write. The families were required to sign papers with a
little clause that they could not visit for 6 months. They were told visits
would interfere with the program and might cause homesickness.
As time passed, letters started to dribble back saying these people
died a natural, merciful death. The villagers were not fooled. We suspected
what was happening. Those people left in excellent physical health and all
died within 6 months. We called this euthanasia.
The Final Steps – Gun Laws
Next came gun registration. People were getting injured by guns.
Hitler said that the real way to catch criminals (we still had a few) was by
matching serial numbers on guns. Most citizens were law abiding and
dutifully marched to the police station to register their firearms.
Not long after-wards, the police said that it was best for everyone to
turn in their guns. The authorities already knew who had them, so it was
futile not to comply voluntarily.
No more freedom of speech. Anyone who said something against the
government was taken away. We knew many people who were arrested,
not only Jews,but also priests and ministers who spoke up.
Totalitarianism didn’t come quickly; it took 5 years from 1938 until
1943, to realize full dictatorship in Austria. Had it happened overnight, my
countrymen would have fought to the last breath. Instead, we had
creeping gradualism. Now, our only weapons were broom handles. The whole idea
sounds almost unbelievable–that the state, little by little, eroded our
After World War II, Russian troops occupied Austria. Women were raped,
preteen to elderly. The press never wrote about this either. When the
Soviets left in 1955, they took everything that they could,
dismantling whole factories
in the process. They sawed down whole orchards of fruit,
and what they couldn’t destroy,
they burned. We called it The Burned Earth.
Most of the population barricaded themselves in their houses. Women
hid in their cellars for 6 weeks as the troops mobilized. Those who
couldn’t, paid the price. There is a monument in Vienna today,
dedicated to those women who were massacred by the Russians.
This is an eye-witness account. It’s true…those of us who sailed
past the Statue of Liberty came to a country of unbelievable freedom and
opportunity. America truly is the greatest country in the world.
Don’t let freedom slip away, because after America , there is no place to go.
By Kitty Werthmann
Kitty Werthmann’s presentation, “Socialism vs. Freedom” | South Dakota Family Policy Council
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